Sunday, 22 March 2009

The Sayings of Prophet Muhammad P.B.U.H about Business Transactions…

by bint_bakri87

1.00 a.m.

1. قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : (( إن الله إذا حرم شيئاً حرم ثمنه )) ( رواه أحمد و أبو داود )

Prophet Muhammad P.B.U.H said, “ If Allah prohibits something, He prohibits its price.” ( Ahmad and Abu Dawud ) .

2. قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : (( من احتكر الطعام أربعين ليلة فقد برئ الله منه )) ( رواه أحمد )

Prophet Muhammad P.B.U.H said, “If one monopolizes foods for fourty days, Allah is strongly displeased with him.” ( Ahmad ) .

3. قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : (( لا يحتكر الطعام إلا خاطىء )) ( رواه مسلم )

Prophet Muhammad P.B.U.H said, “The monopolize cannot be but a sinner.” ( Muslim ) .

4. قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : (( بئس العبد المحتكر، إن سمع برخص ساءه، وإن سمع بغلاء فرح ))( رواه رزين )

Prophet Muhammad P.B.U.H said, “How bad the monopolize is : he is displeased with low prices and pleased with high prices !” ( Razeen ) .

5. قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : (( الجالب مرزوق والمحتكر ملعون )) ( رواه ابن ماجه )

Prophet Muhammad P.B.U.H said, “The merchant who sells at low price is prosperous and the monopolize is cursed.” ( Ibn Majah ) .

6. قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : (( إذا استنصح أحدكم أخاه فلينصح له )) ( رواه أحمد )

Prophet Muhammad P.B.U.H said, “If one seeks your advice, advise him honestly and sincerely.”

( Ahmad ) .

7. قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : (( المسلمون عند شروطهم )) ( رواه أحمد و أبو داود )

Prophet Muhammad P.B.U.H said, “Muslims must fulfill their conditions.”

( Ahmad and Abu Dawud ) .

8. قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : (( البيِّعان بالخيار ما لم يتفرقا، فإن صدقا وبيَّنا بورك لهما في بيعهما، وإن كذبا وكتما محقت بركة بيعهما )) ( رواه البخاري )

Prophet Muhammad P.B.U.H said, “The Buyer and the seller have their choice (of buying or not ) until they separate. If they tell truth (about any defects in the article), their sale is blessed by Allah. If they lie and conceal facts, their sell will not be blessed by Allah.” ( Bukhari ) .

9. قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : (( لا يحل لأحد يبيع بيعاً إلا بيَّن ما فيه، ولا يحل لمن يعلم ذلك إلا بيَّنه ))

( رواه الحاكم والبيهقي )

Prophet Muhammad P.B.U.H said, “If one sells something, he must clarify its defects. And if anyone knows these defects, he must mention them. ( Hakim and Baihaqi ) .

10. مرّ الرسول محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم برجل يبيع حبوباً فأعجبه، فأدخل يده فيه فرأى بلالاً، فقال : (( ما هذا يا صاحب الطعام؟ )) فقال : (( أصابته السماء )) فقال الرسول : (( فهلا جعلته فوق الطعام حتى يراه الناس، من غشنا فليس منا ))

( رواه مسلم )

Prophet Muhammad P.B.U.H passed by a man selling grain, which he admired. He put his hand into it and found it wet. So he said, “ What is this, O owner of the grain?” The man replied, “ It has been wet with rain.” “ The Prophet said, “ Why have you not placed it on the surface so that people may see the truth about it? He who deceives us is not one of us.” ( Muslim ) .

11. مرّ الرسول محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم بطعام حسن ، فوضع يده فإذا هو رديء، فقال الرسول : (( بع هذا على حدة، وهذا على حدة، من غشنا فليس منا ))

( رواه أحمد )

Prophet Muhammad P.B.U.H passed by seemingly good food. He put his hand into it and to his surprise he found a bad-quality food. The Prophet said, “ Sell this aside and this aside. He who deceives us is not one of us.” ( Ahmad ) .

12. قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم محذرا من كثرة الحلف في البيع : (( الحلف منفعة للسلعة ممحقة للبركة ))

( رواه البخاري )

Prophet Muhammad P.B.U.H said, warning against too much swearing while selling goods, “ Swearing may increases sale, but discreases the blessings ( of Allah ).” ( Bukhari ) .

13. قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : (( من اشترى سرقة وهو يعلم أنها سرقة فقد اشترك في اثمها وعارها ))

( رواه البيهقي )

Prophet Muhammad P.B.U.H said, “He who purchases a stolen article although he knows that it is a stolen has taken part in it sin and shame.” ( Baihaqi ) .

14. قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : (( إذا ظهر الربا والزنى في قرية فقد أحلوا بأنفسهم عذاب الله )) ( رواه الحاكم )

Prophet Muhammad P.B.U.H said, “ If Usury and adultery prevail in a village, its people have invited God’s torture.” ( Hakim ) .

15. قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : (( حرمة مال الإنسان كحرمة دمه )) ( أخرجه أبو نعيم في الحلية )

Prophet Muhammad P.B.U.H said, “A man’s property is sacred as his blood.” ( Abu Nu’aym ) .

16. قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : (( لعن الله آكل الربا ومؤكله وشاهديه وكاتبه ) ( رواه أحمد والترمذي )

Prophet Muhammad P.B.U.H said, “God curses the receiver of usury, the giver of usury, the two witnesses , and the writer ( of the usury contract ).” ( Ahmad and Tirmithi ) .

17. قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : (( اللهم إني أعوذبك من غلبة الدين وقهر الرجال )) ( رواه أبو داود )

Prophet Muhammad P.B.U.H said, “O Allah, I seek refuge with you from the burden of debt and the subdual of men.” ( Abu Dawud ) .

18. قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : (( اللهم إني أعوذبك من الكفر والدين )) فقال الرجل : (( أتعدل الكفر بالدين يا رسوا الله ؟ )) قال : (( نعم )) ( رواه النسائى )

Prophet Muhammad P.B.U.H said, “O Allah, I seek shelter with you from disbelief and debt. “ A man asked, “ Do you make disbelief equal to debt, O Mesengger of Allah ?” The Prophet answered, “ Yes.” ( Nasa’i ).

19. قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : (( اللهم إني أعوذبك من المأثم والمغرم )) فقيل : (( إنك تستعيذ من المغرم كثيرا يا رسول الله )) فقال : (( إن الرجل غذا غرم حدث فكذب ووعد فأخلف )) ( رواه البخاري )

Prophet Muhammad P.B.U.H said, “O Allah, I seek refuge with you from sin and debt.” It was said to him, “ O Mesengger of Allah, you seek refuge with Allah from debt repeatedly.” He said, “ A man in debts talks but tell lies and promises but break s his promise.” ( Bukhari ) .

20. قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : (( يغفر للشهيد كل الشيء إلا في الدين )) ( رواه مسلم )

Prophet Muhammad P.B.U.H said, “ The martyr is forgiven everything excepts debts.”

( Muslim ) .

21. قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : (( من أدان اموال الناس يريد أداءها ادى الله عنه، ومن أخذها يريد إتلافها أتلفه الله))

( رواه البخاري )

Prophet Muhammad P.B.U.H said, “He who borrows other people’s money intending to pay back is helped by Allah to pay back, but who borrows it intending to ruin it will be ruined by Allah.” ( Bukhari ) .

22. قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : (( من أسلف فليسلف في كيل معلوم ووزن معلوم إلى أجل معلوم )) ( رواه الجماعة )

Prophet Muhammad P.B.U.H said, “He who pays in advance ( for a purchased commodity ) should in advance specify its measure or weight and time ( of delivery ).” ( The Group ).

23. قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : (( يد الله على الشريكين ما لم يخن أحدهما صاحبه، فإن خان أحدهما صاحبه رفعها عنهما ) ( رواه الدارقطني )

Prophet Muhammad P.B.U.H said, “Allah blesses the two partners until one betrays his companion. If one does, Allah does not bless their partnership.” ( Daraqutniyy) .

24. قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : (( أنا أولى بالمؤمنين من نفسه، من ترك مالا فلورثته، من ترك ديناً أو ضياعاً فإليّ وعليّ )) ( رواه مسلم )

Prophet Muhammad P.B.U.H said, “I am more caring for every muslim than he for himself, if one leaves money ( after the death ), it goes to his heirs, if one leaves debts or dependants, I take care of them .” ( Muslim ).

25. قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : (( من كانت له أرض فليزرعها أو ليمنحها أخاه )) ( رواه مسلم )

Prophet Muhammad P.B.U.H said, “ He who owns ( a piece of ) land should cultivate it or grant it to his brother .” (Muslim ).

26. قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : (( ما تصنعون بمحاقلكم؟ )) قالوا : (( نؤجرها على الربع وعلى الأوساق من التمر والشعير )) قال : (( لا تفعلوا )) ( رواه البخاري )

Prophet Muhammad P.B.U.H asked some land-owners , “ What do you do with your farms ?” They answered, “ We let them for the fourth ( of harvest ) and specified measures of dates and barley.” He said, “ Do not do so .” ( Bukhari ).

26. نهى الرسول محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم عن بيع الثمار في الحقول والحدائق قبل أن يبدو صلاحها ويعرف أنها سالمة من الأمراض والآفات. وقال : (( أرأيتم إذا منع الله الثمرة ؟ بم يستحل أحدكم مال أخيه ؟ " ( رواه البخاري )

Prophet Muhammad P.B.U.H disallowed selling the harvest of fields or orchards before its goodness is clearly seen and before it is known that it is safe from diseases. He said, “ What if the harvest is damaged ? How can one of you take his brother’s money unlawfully ? !”

( Bukhari ).

Thursday, 12 March 2009

Mahasiswa Jurusan Agama dari Timur Tengah tidak Berkualiti?

by bint_bakri87

6.24 a.m.

Kita sering mendengar suara-suara yang menyatakan ungkapan sebegini. Namun, sejauh mana relevannya kata-kata ini ditujukan buat golongan yang masih lagi menuntut mahupun sudah bergelar graduan dari bumi Anbiya’ ini. Adakah kata-kata mereka ini berasas? Kita sebagai golongan yang terlibat dan menerima tohmahan sebegini sudah pasti berasa panas telinga walaupun jika diteliti mungkin ada kebenaran di sebalik kata-kata ini dan tidak boleh dipandang enteng. Maka, atas kesedaran ini, mari kita teliti semula punca atau penyebab kita dilemparkan dengan kenyataan sebegini sekaligus membuktikan sama ada benar atau tidak kata-kata ini. Oleh itu, disini dikemukan penelitian berdasarkan Analisis SWOTS, selalunya yang biasa kita baca atau dengar ialah SWOT, di sini saya tambah satu lagi , maka jadilah SWOTS.

S = Strenght ( Kekuatan )

  1. Mempunyai kebolehan ataupun kemahiran bertutur dalam bahasa Arab.
  2. Mempunyai daya ketahanan mental dan fizikal yang agak tinggi kerana suasana kehidupan di sekeliling masyarakat Arab yang agak kasar.
  3. Sudah semestinya memahami ilmu agama dengan agak mendalam.
  4. Berada dalam persekitaran yang baik atau Bi’ah Solehah.

W = Weakness ( Kelemahan )

  1. Kurang mahir dalam ilmu-ilmu kemahiran insan ( soft skills ), contohnya, kemahiran public speaking, kemahiran berorganisasi, kemahiran mengurus masa.
  2. Tidak mahu menonjolkan diri.
  3. Selalu bersikap pasif dan tidak pro-aktif.
  4. Kadang- kala berfikiran ortodoks. ( menyempitkan skop pemikiran ).
  5. Susah menyesuaikan diri dengan suasana sekeliling.
  6. Kurang mahir atau agak mundur tentang kemahiran IT.
  7. Sering membahaskan tentang masalah-masalah tidak mengikut prioriti atau dengan kata lain, lebih memfokuskan kepada masalah khilafiah dan meninggalkan masalah-masalah ummah yang lebih besar.
  8. Lemah dalam bahasa Inggeris sama ada untuk bertutur ataupun menulis.
  9. Tidak mengetahui etika dan protokol majlis-majlis rasmi.
  10. Tidak mengetahui ataupun tidak mengendahkan etika berurusan di pejabat-pejabat kerajaan.

O = Oppurtunity ( Peluang )

  1. Dapat menimba ilmu agama sebanyak-banyaknya dengan peluang menuntut ilmu di bumi Anbiya’.
  2. Tidak mustahil menjadi seorang yang berkaliber dan berkarisma serta serba boleh dengan melengkapkan diri dengan ilmu dan kemahiran kontemporari.
  3. Dipandang mulia oleh masyarakat.
  4. Mudah mendapat kepercayaan masyarakat.

T = Threat ( Cabaran )

  1. Masyarakat mengharapkan sumbangan dari golongan jurusan agama khususnya dari Timur Tengah untuk menjadi sumber rujukan mengenai masalah-masalah agama.
  2. Pandangan masyarakat yang tinggi terhadap golongan ini akan musnah sekiranya kita semua tidak berkeperibadian atau tidak berpengetahuan agama sebagai mana yang mereka harapkan .
  3. Sukar untuk menempatkan diri dalam pasaran kerjaya kerana perlu bersaing dengan pelajar-pelajar dari universiti tempatan yang boleh dikira hampir setaraf dengan pelajar lulusan dari Timur Tengah.

S = Solve ( Penyelesaian )

  1. Lengkapkan diri dengan pelbagai ilmu pengetahuan sama ada ditimba dari pelajaran di dalam dewan kuliah ataupun dari kelas-kelas bukan wajib.
  2. Tingkatkan soft skills sebagai nilai tambah yang perlu ada bagi setiap yang bergelar mahasiswa atau graduan.
  3. Baikpulih kemahiran bahasa Inggeris.
  4. Belajar menepati masa kerana masa itu ibarat pedang, kalau kita tidak memotongnya, maka pedang itu akan memotong kita. (petikan kata-kata arab).
  5. Cuba menjadi seorang yang lebih versatile, up to date, easy-going dan berfikir di luar kotak.

Dengan apa yang dinukilkan disini, marilah kita semak kembali sama ada wajar kata-kata ini ditujukan kepada kita seterusnya bersama-sama kita muhasabah kembali dan membuat anjakan paradigma dalam diri kita semua untuk menghadapi mehnah dan tribulasi dalam zaman globalisasi yang semakin mencabar . Semoga kita mampu menjadi agen perubah dan membawa bukan sahaja arus malah gelombang perubahan dalam masyarakat Malaysia. Ayuh kawan-kawanku, bangkitlah dari lena yang panjang kerana masalah ummat tidak menunggu kita matang!

Wednesday, 11 March 2009

Quranic Verses about Economic, Business or another Transaction with English Translation From Tafsir Al-Jalalayn...

by bint_bakri87


1- النهي عن استهلاك المحرمات

(Prohibition from Consuming Illegal Things)

{قُل لاَّ أَجِدُ فِي مَآ أُوْحِيَ إِلَيَّ مُحَرَّماً عَلَىٰ طَاعِمٍ يَطْعَمُهُ إِلاَّ أَن يَكُونَ مَيْتَةً أَوْ دَماً مَّسْفُوحاً أَوْ لَحْمَ خِنزِيرٍ فَإِنَّهُ رِجْسٌ أَوْ فِسْقاً أُهِلَّ لِغَيْرِ ٱللَّهِ بِهِ فَمَنِ ٱضْطُرَّ غَيْرَ بَاغٍ وَلاَ عَادٍ فَإِنَّ رَبَّكَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ}

(الأنعام : 145)

Say: ‘I do not find, in what is revealed to me, anything forbidden to him who eats thereof except it be (read yakūn or takūn) carrion (maytatan; or if read maytatun, then with the form yakūn, ‘it be’, preceding it) or blood poured forth, flowing, as opposed to [the case of] a liver or a spleen; or the flesh of swine — that indeed is an abomination, forbidden, or, except it be, a wicked thing that has been hallowed to other than God, that is to say, it has been slaughtered in the name of someone else. But whoever is constrained, to do any of what has been mentioned, and he consumes it, neither coveting nor transgressing, then surely your Lord is Forgiving, to him for what he has consumed, Merciful’, towards him. To these [prohibited things] the Sunna adds all beasts of prey with canine teeth and birds [of prey] with talons.

2- الحث على العمل

(Encouragement for Working )

{وَقُلِ ٱعْمَلُواْ فَسَيَرَى ٱللَّهُ عَمَلَكُمْ وَرَسُولُهُ وَٱلْمُؤْمِنُونَ وَسَتُرَدُّونَ إِلَىٰ عَالِمِ ٱلْغَيْبِ وَٱلشَّهَادَةِ فَيُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ } ( التوية : 105)

And say, to them, or to people [in general]: ‘Act, as you will, for God will surely see your actions, and [so will] His Messenger and the believers, and you will be returned, through resurrection, to the Knower of the unseen and the visible, that is, [to] God, and He will tell you what you used to do’, and so requite you for it.

} يٰأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ آمَنُوۤاْ إِذَا نُودِيَ لِلصَّلاَةِ مِن يَوْمِ ٱلْجُمُعَةِ فَٱسْعَوْاْ إِلَىٰ ذِكْرِ ٱللَّهِ وَذَرُواْ ٱلْبَيْعَ ذَلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ { ( الجمعة : 9 )

O you who believe, when the call for prayer is made on Friday, hasten, set off, to the remembrance of God, to the prayer, and leave aside [all] commerce, suspend [all] such contracts. That is better for you, should you know, that it is better for you, then do it.

3- تحريم الإكتناز

( Prohibition Hoard up Gold and Silver without Spending


{يٰأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ إِنَّ كَثِيراً مِّنَ ٱلأَحْبَارِ وَٱلرُّهْبَانِ لَيَأْكُلُونَ أَمْوَالَ ٱلنَّاسِ بِٱلْبَاطِلِ وَيَصُدُّونَ عَن سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ وَٱلَّذِينَ يَكْنِزُونَ ٱلذَّهَبَ وَٱلْفِضَّةَ وَلاَ يُنفِقُونَهَا فِي سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ فَبَشِّرْهُمْ بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ

{يَوْمَ يُحْمَىٰ عَلَيْهَا فِي نَارِ جَهَنَّمَ فَتُكْوَىٰ بِهَا جِبَاهُهُمْ وَجُنوبُهُمْ وَظُهُورُهُمْ هَـٰذَا مَا كَنَزْتُمْ لأَنْفُسِكُمْ فَذُوقُواْ مَا كُنتُمْ تَكْنِزُونَ

( التوبة : 34- 35 )

O you who believe, many of the rabbis and monks indeed consume, take, people’s goods by false means, as in the case of bribes [paid] for judgements, and bar, people, from the way of God, [from] His religion. And those who (wa’lladhīna is the subject) hoard up gold and silver, and do not expend them, these treasure-hoards, in the way of God, that is, they do not pay from it what is due to Him by way of alms and charity — give them tidings, inform them, of a painful chastisement.

On the day when it shall be heated in the fire of Hell and therewith their foreheads and their sides and their backs shall be branded, burnt — their skins will be stretched until these [hoards of gold and silver] can be placed on them entirely, and it will be said to them: ‘This is what you hoarded up for yourselves: so taste now what you used to hoard!’, that is, [taste] its requital.

4- حسن التقدير والإتقان (Completing and Doing Works Perfectly)

{ٱلَّذِيۤ أَحْسَنَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقَهُ وَبَدَأَ خَلْقَ ٱلإِنْسَانِ مِن طِينٍ} ) السجدة : 7)

Who perfected everything that He created (read khalaqahu, as a past tense functioning as an adjectival qualification [of what He perfected]; or khalqahu, ‘its creation’, as an inclusive substitution [for kulla shay’in, ‘everything’]). And He began the creation of man, Adam, from clay.

صُنْعَ ٱللَّهِ ٱلَّذِيۤ أَتْقَنَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ إِنَّهُ خَبِيرٌ بِمَا تَفْعَلُونَ}... ( النمل : 88 )

God’s handiwork (sun‘a, a verbal noun emphasising the import of the preceding sentence, and which has been annexed [in a genitive construction] to its agent [Allāhi, ‘God’] after the omission of its operator) Who has perfected everything, that He has made. Truly He is aware of what you do (taf‘alūna; or [read] yaf‘alūna, ‘[what] they do’), namely, His enemies, [what they do] in the way of disobedience, and His friends, in the way of obedience.

{أَنِ ٱعْمَلْ سَابِغَاتٍ وَقَدِّرْ فِي ٱلسَّرْدِ وَٱعْمَلُواْ صَالِحاً إِنِّي بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ} ( سبأ : 11 )

And We said: ‘Fashion, from it, long coats of mail — complete suits of armour which the person wearing it drags behind him along the ground — and measure [well] the links’, that is, in the weaving of the coats (the maker of these is called sarrād). In other words, make them so that the rings thereof are arranged properly. And act, O family of David, together with him, righteously. Indeed I am Seer of what you do, and will requite you for it accordingly.

( Prohibition from Excessive) 5- النهي عن الإسراف

{يَابَنِيۤ ءَادَمَ خُذُواْ زِينَتَكُمْ عِندَ كُلِّ مَسْجِدٍ وكُلُواْ وَٱشْرَبُواْ وَلاَ تُسْرِفُوۤاْ إِنَّهُ لاَ يُحِبُّ ٱلْمُسْرِفِينَ }

( الأعراف : 31 )

O Children of Adam! Don your adornment, that which covers your nakedness, at every place of worship, at prayer and at the circumambulation, and eat and drink, what you want, but do not be excessive; He truly does not love those who are excessive.

6- النهي عن التقتير ( Prohibition from Parsimonious)

{ وَٱلَّذِينَ إِذَآ أَنفَقُواْ لَمْ يُسْرِفُواْ وَلَمْ يَقْتُرُواْ وَكَانَ بَيْنَ ذَلِكَ قَوَاما}ً

( الفرقان : 67 )

And who, when they expend, upon their dependants, are neither prodigal nor parsimonious (read yaqturū or yuqtirū); but between such, prodigality and parsimony, lies — [between the two] their expenditure [is in] — moderation;

( Prohibition from Squander) 7- النهي عن التبذير

{إِنَّ ٱلْمُبَذِّرِينَ كَانُوۤاْ إِخْوَانَ ٱلشَّيَاطِينِ وَكَانَ ٱلشَّيْطَانُ لِرَبِّهِ كَفُوراً }

( الإسراء : 27 )

Indeed squanderers are brothers of devils, that is, they follow their way, and the Devil was ever ungrateful to his Lord, extremely rejective of His graces: likewise his brother the squanderer.

8- النهي عن السفه (Prohibition from Giving Property to Foolish)

وَلاَ تُؤْتُواْ ٱلسُّفَهَآءَ أَمْوَالَكُمُ ٱلَّتِي جَعَلَ ٱللَّهُ لَكُمْ قِيَٰماً وَٱرْزُقُوهُمْ فِيهَا وَٱكْسُوهُمْ وَقُولُواْ لَهُمْ قَوْلاً مَّعْرُوفاً}

وَٱبْتَلُواْ ٱلْيَتَامَىٰ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا بَلَغُواْ النِّكَاحَ فَإِنْ آنَسْتُمْ مِّنْهُمْ رُشْداً فَٱدْفَعُواْ إِلَيْهِمْ أَمْوَالَهُمْ وَلاَ تَأْكُلُوهَآ إِسْرَافاً وَبِدَاراً أَن يَكْبَرُواْ وَمَن كَانَ غَنِيّاً فَلْيَسْتَعْفِفْ وَمَن كَانَ فَقِيراً فَلْيَأْكُلْ بِٱلْمَعْرُوفِ فَإِذَا دَفَعْتُمْ إِلَيْهِمْ أَمْوَالَهُمْ فَأَشْهِدُواْ عَلَيْهِمْ وَكَفَىٰ بِٱللَّهِ حَسِيباً }

( النساء : 6-5 )

But do not, O guardians, give to the foolish, the squanderers from among men, women and children, your property, that is, the property that is theirs but held by you, which God has assigned to you as maintenance (qiyāman, ‘maintenance’, is the verbal noun from qāma; a variant reading has qiyaman, the plural of qīma, ‘value’, that is, that with which property is valued), meaning that the property which sustains your livelihoods and the well-being of your children, lest they expend it improperly; provide for them thereof, that is, feed them from it, and clothe them, and speak to them decent words, prepare for them a kind reception, by giving them their property when they reach maturity.

Try, test, well the orphans, before reaching maturity with regard [the duties of] religion and [before] they can [legally] manage their own affairs, until they reach the age of marrying, that is, until they have become eligible for it through puberty or [legal] age, which, according to al-Shāfi‘ī, is the completion of fifteen years; then, if you perceive in them maturity, that is, right [judgement] in matters of religion and their property, deliver their property to them; consume it not, O guardians, wastefully, without due merit, and in haste, that is, hastening to expend it, fearing, lest they should grow up, and become mature, at which time you will be obliged to hand it over to them. If any man, who is a guardian, is rich, let him be abstinent, that is, let him abstain from the orphan’s property and refrain from consuming it; if he is poor, let him consume, of it, honourably, that is, in line with the wage for his work. And when you deliver to them, the orphans, their property, take witnesses over them, that they have received it and that you are absolved [of the obligation], so that if any dispute occurs, you are able to refer to a clear proof: this is a command [intended] for guidance. God suffices as a reckoner, as a guardian of His creatures’ deeds and as a reckoner of these [deeds] (the bā’ [in bi’Llāhi] is extra).

9- اختلاف ملكات الناس (Difference in Property Ownership)

أَهُمْ يَقْسِمُونَ رَحْمَتَ رَبِّكَ نَحْنُ قَسَمْنَا بَيْنَهُمْ مَّعِيشَتَهُمْ فِي ٱلْحَيَاةِ ٱلدُّنْيَا وَرَفَعْنَا بَعْضَهُمْ فَوْقَ بَعْضٍ دَرَجَاتٍ لِّيَتَّخِذَ بَعْضُهُم بَعْضاً سُخْرِيّاً وَرَحْمَتُ رَبِّكَ خَيْرٌ مِّمَّا يَجْمَعُونَ } ( الزخرف : 32 )

Is it they who apportion the mercy of your Lord?, [the mercy being] prophethood. We have apportioned among them their livelihood in the life of this world, making some of them wealthy and others poor, and raised some of them, in wealth, above others by degrees, so that some of them, who are wealthy, may take others, who are poor, in service, disposed to work for them in return for a wage (the [final] yā’ [in sukhriyyā] is attributive; a variant reading has sikhriyyan); and the mercy of your Lord, that is, Paradise, is better than what they amass, in this world.

10- النهي عن الغش في الكم والنوع

( Prohibition from Cheating in Quantity and Quality)

{ وَيْلٌ لِّلْمُطَفِّفِينَ }{ ٱلَّذِينَ إِذَا ٱكْتَالُواْ عَلَى ٱلنَّاسِ يَسْتَوْفُونَ }{ وَإِذَا كَالُوهُمْ أَوْ وَّزَنُوهُمْ يُخْسِرُونَ } ( المطففين : 3-1 )

Woe (waylun: a term entailing chastisement; or [it is the name of] a valley in Hell) to the defrauders: those who, when they take measure from people, demand [it] in full, the measure; but [who] when they measure for them or weigh for them, they cause [them] loss, they diminish [for them] the measure or the weight.

{ وَأَقِيمُواْ ٱلْوَزْنَ بِٱلْقِسْطِ وَلاَ تُخْسِرُواْ ٱلْمِيزَانَ } ( الرحمن : 9 )

And observe the weights with justice, fairly, and do not skimp the balance, [do not] decrease [the value of] what is being weighed.

{ وَيٰقَوْمِ أَوْفُواْ ٱلْمِكْيَالَ وَٱلْمِيزَانَ بِٱلْقِسْطِ وَلاَ تَبْخَسُواْ ٱلنَّاسَ أَشْيَآءَهُمْ وَلاَ تَعْثَوْاْ فِي ٱلأَرْضِ مُفْسِدِينَ } ( هود : 85 )

O my people, give full measure and weight, fulfil [the due of] both of these, in justice, and do not defraud people in respect of their goods, do not diminish anything of their due, and do not be degenerate in the land, working corruption, by killing or otherwise ([lā ta‘thaū] derives from ‘athiya, meaning afsada, ‘he corrupted’; mufsidīn, ‘working corruption’, is a circumstantial qualifier reiterating the import of the term operating it, ta‘thaū, ‘[do not] be degenerate’).

11- النهي عن الغبن في الكم و النوع

( Prohibition from Inequity in Quantity and Quality)

{ وَلاَ تَبْخَسُواْ ٱلنَّاسَ أَشْيَآءَهُمْ وَلاَ تَعْثَوْاْ فِي ٱلأَرْضِ مُفْسِدِينَ } ( الشعراء : 183 )

and do not defraud people in their goods, do not diminish anything of what is due to them, and do not be degenerate in the earth, seeking corruption, by killing or otherwise ([ta‘thaw, ‘degenerate’] derives from ‘athiya, meaning afsada, ‘to corrupt’; mufsidīna, ‘seeking corruption’, is a circumstantial qualifier emphasising the import of its operator [ta‘thaw]).

12- تحريم الربا ( Usury Prohibition )

{ وَمَآ آتَيْتُمْ مِّن رِّباً لِّيَرْبُوَاْ فِي أَمْوَالِ ٱلنَّاسِ فَلاَ يَرْبُواْ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ وَمَآ آتَيْتُمْ مِّن زَكَاةٍ تُرِيدُونَ وَجْهَ ٱللَّهِ فَأُوْلَـٰئِكَ هُمُ ٱلْمُضْعِفُونَ }

( الروم : 39 )

And what you give in usury — such as when something is given as a gift or a present for the purpose of demanding more in return; it [the practice of usury] (ribā) is referred to by the same noun denoting that [illicit] ‘extra’ (ziyāda) requested in the [financial] transaction — that it may increase the wealth of the people, giving it, does not increase with God — there is no reward in it for those who give it. But what you give as alms (zakāt), as voluntary alms (sadaqa), seeking, thereby, God’s Countenance, such [of you who do so] — they are the receivers of manifold increase, in their reward for what they sought (there is here a shift of address away from the second person).

{ يَٰأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لاَ تَأْكُلُواْ ٱلرِّبَٰواْ أَضْعَٰفاً مُّضَٰعَفَةً وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ }

( آل عمران : 130)

O you who believe, do not exact usury, twofold and severalfold (read mudā‘afatan or mud‘afatan) by increasing the amount [to be repaid] when the [loan] period comes to an end and delaying the request [of the loan]. And fear God, by abandoning such [usury], so that you may prosper, [that] you may triumph.

{ يٰأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ ٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَذَرُواْ مَا بَقِيَ مِنَ ٱلرِّبَٰواْ إِن كُنْتُمْ مُّؤْمِنِينَ }{ فَإِن لَّمْ تَفْعَلُواْ فَأْذَنُواْ بِحَرْبٍ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَإِنْ تُبْتُمْ فَلَكُمْ رُؤُوسُ أَمْوَٰلِكُمْ لاَ تَظْلِمُونَ وَلاَ تُظْلَمُونَ }

( البقرة : 279-278)

O you who believe, fear God, and give up, abandon, the usury that is outstanding, if you are believers, true to your faith, since it is expected of the believer that he adhere to God’s command: this was revealed when some of the Companions, after the prohibition, wanted to reclaim some of the usury from before.

But if you do not, do what you have been commanded, then be warned, have knowledge, of war from God, and His Messenger, against you: herein is a grave threat for them. When it was revealed, they said, ‘What power can we have in a war against Him!’ Yet if you repent, and forgo it, you shall have your principal sums, the original amounts, not being unjust, by charging interest, and no injustice being done to you, by way of any diminution.

13- تحريم الربا ومشروعية البيع

( Usury Prohibition and Legality of Merchandise)

{ ٱلَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ ٱلرِّبَٰواْ لاَ يَقُومُونَ إِلاَّ كَمَا يَقُومُ ٱلَّذِي يَتَخَبَّطُهُ ٱلشَّيْطَانُ مِنَ ٱلْمَسِّ ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَالُوۤاْ إِنَّمَا ٱلْبَيْعُ مِثْلُ ٱلرِّبَٰواْ وَأَحَلَّ ٱللَّهُ ٱلْبَيْعَ وَحَرَّمَ ٱلرِّبَٰواْ فَمَن جَآءَهُ مَوْعِظَةٌ مِّنْ رَّبِّهِ فَٱنْتَهَىٰ فَلَهُ مَا سَلَفَ وَأَمْرُهُ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ وَمَنْ عَادَ فَأُوْلَـٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ ٱلنَّارِ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ } ( البقرة : 275 )

Those who devour, that is, [those who] seize by way of, usury, which is an excess [levied] in transactions of money or foodstuffs either on their value or on credit, shall not rise again, from their graves, except, rising, as one whom Satan has made prostrate, demented, from touch, [through] madness (min al-mass, ‘from touch’, is semantically connected to yaqūmūna, ‘they rise’); that, which befalls them, is because, of the fact that, they say, ‘Trade is like usury’, in terms of permissibility: this [statement] is a type of reversed simile used for intensity [sc. ‘usury is like trade’ is the expected word order]. God responds to them saying that: God has permitted trade, and forbidden usury. Whoever receives an admonition from his Lord and desists, from devouring it, he shall have his past gains, those made before the prohibition and which cannot be reclaimed from him, and his affair, with regard to pardoning him, is committed to God; but whoever reverts, to devouring it, treating it like trade in terms of lawfulness — those are the inhabitants of the Fire, abiding therein.

14- النهي عن أكل أموال الغير بالباطل

( Prohibition from Taking Other’s Property in Deception)

{ وَلاَ تَأْكُلُوۤاْ أَمْوَالَكُمْ بَيْنَكُمْ بِٱلْبَاطِلِ وَتُدْلُواْ بِهَا إِلَى ٱلْحُكَّامِ لِتَأْكُلُواْ فَرِيقاً مِّنْ أَمْوَالِ ٱلنَّاسِ بِٱلإِثْمِ وَأَنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ }

( البقرة : 188 )

Consume not your goods between you, that is to say, do not let one consume the goods of the other, in deception, that which is illicit according to the Law, such as theft and extortion; and, do not, proffer them, the regulation of these [goods] or any bribes, to the judges, that you may consume, as a result of any arbitration, a portion of other people’s goods, embroiled, in sin while you are aware, that you are in error.

( Legality of Lending) 15- مشروعية الإعارة

...وَتَعَاوَنُواْ عَلَى ٱلْبرِّ وَٱلتَّقْوَىٰ وَلاَ تَعَاوَنُواْ عَلَى ٱلإِثْمِ وَٱلْعُدْوَانِ وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ شَدِيدُ ٱلْعِقَابِ } ( المائدة : 2 )

Help one another to righteousness, by doing that to which you were enjoined, and piety, by refraining from what you have been forbidden; do not help one another (ta‘āwanū: one of the two original tā’ letters [in tata‘āwanū] has been omitted) to sin, acts of disobedience, and enmity, transgression of God’s bounds. And fear God, fear His punishment by being obedient to Him; surely God is severe in retribution, against those that oppose Him.

16- الإحسان في الدَين ( Tolerance to Creditor)

{ وَإِن كَانَ ذُو عُسْرَةٍ فَنَظِرَةٌ إِلَىٰ مَيْسَرَةٍ وَأَن تَصَدَّقُواْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ إِن كُنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ}

( البقرة : 280 )

And if any man, in debt, should be in difficulties, then, let him have, respite, a postponement, till things are easier (read maysara or maysura, meaning ‘a time of ease’); but that you should give (tassaddaqū, where the second tā’ of the softened form, tatasaddaqū, has been assimilated with the sād), the one in difficulty, a voluntary almsgiving, by waiving his debt, is better for you, did you but know, [if you know] that it is better for you, then do it. In a hadīth it is said, ‘Whoever gives respite to one in difficulty, or waives his debt, God will place him under His shade, on a day when there shall be no shade except God’s’, as reported by Muslim.

17- الكتابة والشهادة عند الدين ( Writing and and Witness during Lending)

{ يٰأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ آمَنُوۤاْ إِذَا تَدَايَنتُم بِدَيْنٍ إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى فَٱكْتُبُوهُ وَلْيَكْتُب بَّيْنَكُمْ كَاتِبٌ بِٱلْعَدْلِ وَلاَ يَأْبَ كَاتِبٌ أَنْ يَكْتُبَ كَمَا عَلَّمَهُ ٱللَّهُ فَلْيَكْتُبْ وَلْيُمْلِلِ ٱلَّذِي عَلَيْهِ ٱلْحَقُّ وَلْيَتَّقِ ٱللَّهَ رَبَّهُ وَلاَ يَبْخَسْ مِنْهُ شَيْئاً فَإن كَانَ ٱلَّذِي عَلَيْهِ ٱلْحَقُّ سَفِيهاً أَوْ ضَعِيفاً أَوْ لاَ يَسْتَطِيعُ أَن يُمِلَّ هُوَ فَلْيُمْلِلْ وَلِيُّهُ بِٱلْعَدْلِ وَٱسْتَشْهِدُواْ شَهِيدَيْنِ مِّن رِّجَالِكُمْ فَإِن لَّمْ يَكُونَا رَجُلَيْنِ فَرَجُلٌ وَٱمْرَأَتَانِ مِمَّن تَرْضَوْنَ مِنَ ٱلشُّهَدَآءِ أَن تَضِلَّ إِحْدَاهُمَا فَتُذَكِّرَ إِحْدَاهُمَا ٱلأُخْرَىٰ وَلاَ يَأْبَ ٱلشُّهَدَآءُ إِذَا مَا دُعُواْ وَلاَ تَسْأَمُوۤاْ أَن تَكْتُبُوهُ صَغِيراً أَو كَبِيراً إِلَىٰ أَجَلِهِ ذَلِكُمْ أَقْسَطُ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ وَأَقْومُ لِلشَّهَٰدَةِ وَأَدْنَىٰ أَلاَّ تَرْتَابُوۤاْ إِلاَّ أَن تَكُونَ تِجَٰرَةً حَاضِرَةً تُدِيرُونَهَا بَيْنَكُمْ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَلاَّ تَكْتُبُوهَا وَأَشْهِدُوۤاْ إِذَا تَبَايَعْتُمْ وَلاَ يُضَآرَّ كَاتِبٌ وَلاَ شَهِيدٌ وَإِن تَفْعَلُواْ فَإِنَّهُ فُسُوقٌ بِكُمْ وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَيُعَلِّمُكُمُ ٱللَّهُ وَٱللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ }{ وَإِن كُنتُمْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ وَلَمْ تَجِدُواْ كَاتِباً فَرِهَٰنٌ مَّقْبُوضَةٌ فَإِنْ أَمِنَ بَعْضُكُم بَعْضاً فَلْيُؤَدِّ ٱلَّذِي ٱؤْتُمِنَ أَمَانَتَهُ وَلْيَتَّقِ ٱللَّهَ رَبَّهُ وَلاَ تَكْتُمُواْ ٱلشَّهَٰدَةَ وَمَن يَكْتُمْهَا فَإِنَّهُ آثِمٌ قَلْبُهُ وَٱللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ عَلِيمٌ } ( البقرة : 283-282 )

O you who believe, when you contract, when you are dealing with, a debt, such as in prepayment for (future) delivery of goods or a loan, one upon another for a stated, a known, term, write it down, as confirmation and security against any dispute; and let a writer write it, the contract of debt, down between you justly, accurately, not increasing or decreasing the amount or the terms; and let not any writer refuse to write it down, if he is requested for such a task, as God has taught him (the kāf of ka-mā, ‘as’, is semantically connected to the verb ya’ba, ‘refuse’), that is, just as He has given him the advantage of knowing how to write, he should not be niggardly in this respect; so let him write (repeated for emphasis), and let the debtor dictate, to the one writing the contract, for he is the one being witnessed, and must be fully aware of his obligations; and let him fear God his Lord, when dictating, and not diminish anything of it, of the debt due. And if the debtor be a fool, a squanderer, or weak, not up to dictating on account of old age or immaturity, or unable to dictate himself, on account of being dumb, or not knowing the language and so forth, then let his guardian, the one in charge of his affairs, be it a parent, an executor, a custodian or an interpreter, dictate justly. And summon to bear witness, the debt, two witnesses, men, mature Muslim free men; or if the two, witnesses, be not men, then one man and two women, to bear witness, such witnesses as you approve of, on account of their piety and probity; the number of women is because of the fact, so that if one of the two women errs, forgets the testimony, given their lesser astuteness and accuracy; the other, the one remembering, will remind her (read fa-tudhakkira or fa-tudhkira), the one that has forgotten — the ‘reminding’ clause is the reason [for the choice of two women], that is to say, so that she may be reminded if she errs or strays into error, because this [forgetfulness] is the cause of it (a variant reading [for an, ‘that’] has the conditional in, ‘if’, with [the verb inflected as] tudhakkiru, ‘she will remind’, making it a new sentence, the response to which [follows]); and let the witnesses not refuse, whenever (the mā of idhā mā, ‘whenever’, is extra) they are summoned, to bear witness and take responsibility for the testimony; and be not disdainful, lazy, to write it down, that which you have witnessed in truth (for this frequently occurred), be it, small or great, a little or much, with its term, that is, the date on which it is due (ilā ajlihi is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the [pronominal suffix] hā’ of taktubū-hu, ‘you write it down’); that, writing down, is more equitable, more just, in God’s sight, more upright for testimony, that is to say, [that is] more helpful in summoning witness, because it contains the reminder; and nearer, closer to attaining [the desired state] that you will not be in doubt, with regard to the amount and the due dates; unless it be, [that] there is, trade carried out there and then (tijāratun hādiratun: a variant reading has tijāratan hādiratan, in which case the nominal sentence is missing its subject, and must be the pronoun for tijāra, ‘trade’, that is, hiya, ‘it [fem.

And if you are upon a journey, travelling and you contract a debt, and you do not find a writer, then a pledge (ruhun or rihān, plural of rahn) in hand, as a guarantee for you. The Sunna clarifies the permissibility of making pledges in towns, where writers may be forthcoming; but the stipulation is made in the event of travel because in this case it is more important to have a guarantee; God’s reference to it being ‘in hand’ (maqbūda) is a condition for the pledge given to be valid, and to satisfy the pledgee or his representative. But if one of you, the creditor, trusts another, the debtor, over the debt and does not require a pledge, let him who is trusted, the debtor, deliver his trust, the debt; and let him fear God his Lord, when delivering it. And do not conceal the testimony, if you are summoned to give it; whoever conceals it, his heart is sinful: the heart is mentioned because it is the locus of the testimony, and because if it sins, there are other sinful consequences, and so the person will be punished as though he were a sinner; and God knows what you do, nothing of which can be hidden from Him.